In this article, we will discuss how to use pronoun. The rules that follow. You can learn from the given examples. And also make sentence corrections at the end of the article.
A pronoun is a word used in the place of a noun.
Types of pronoun
Singular I; Plural: We
Singular: You; Plural: You
Singular: He, She, It; Plural: They
This book is his.
- She washed herself at a well.
- They killed themselves for no reason.
- I must blame myself for this.
I offered to drive the car myself. She herself made the mistake.
- That is Dr. Rao’s house.
- Those are some new buildings.
- This is your passport.
- These are good books
- Some are born great.
- Anyone can take a horse to the pond, but no one can make it drink/
Other indefinite pronouns are:
Somebody, Anybody, anything, something, (the) other, others, another,nobody, nothing etc
Pronounce of number
- Of the 10 guests, three were men.
- Many of them are not good books
Pronounce of quantity
More, Much, little etc
Look at the pronounce underline in the sentence given below:
- Everyone has his own problems.
- Either of the applicants can be employed.
- Neither of the students can get through the examination.
- Each of those players deserves a prize.
- Everybody will be given a chance to participate in this match.
These words, which are underlined, are distributive pronouns. They are called so because they refer to persons considered individually. The distributive pronouns are in the singular number and are therefore followed by singular verbs.
- Neither is a negative word which is used to refer to two persons or things.
- None is also an negative word which is used to refer to more than two persons are things.
- The usage: Each one of the boys….. (is wrong because ‘one’ becomes redundant)
Look at these sentences:
- The two girls helped each other in every respect.
- The political parties quarreled with one another. Each other and one another expresses a mutual or a reciprocal relationship. They are considered as a single unit and are called ‘reciprocal pronouns’ or ‘compound personal pronouns’.
Each Other is usually used to refer to two persons or things and one another to more than two persons or things.
The words underlined in the following sentences are called interrogative pronouns because they are used in questions.
- Who is the president of India?
- Whose is this calculator?
- To whom did you give the parcel?
- Which is the route to the hospital?
- What have you to do now?
Look at these sentences:
- The gentleman who is speaking is our principal.
- This is the gentleman whose guest I was in Bombay.
The words underlined are pronounce standing for the nouns used before them. The nouns are called antecedents and the pronouns are called relative pronouns. They relate the adjective clauses to the main clauses.
Rules for the use of pronouns:
Now let us look at some aspects related to pronounce that will be helpful in answering questions in Sentence Correction.
Some important uses of pronoun ”it’ are given below with examples.
(A) To introduce a sentence
It is not certain that the president will come.
(B) To give emphasize to the noun or pronoun that follows
It was you who begin the quarrel with us.
(C) As an indefinite nominative of an impersonal verb.
It is snowing outside.
(D) In sentences showing distance.
It is not far to walk.
(E) In sentences indicating time.
It is 10 o’clock now
(F) To introduces a phrase.
It is decided to declare a holiday today.
(G) In exclamatory sentences.
What a beautiful book it is.!
(H) To introduce a ‘that’ clause.
It is said that smoking is injurious to health.
(I) As a sort of object in order to avoid repetition.
Letters fight it(the issue) out.
While confessing a fault(or expressing a negative Idea) the sequence of the personal pronouns should be as follows:
I, you and he are in the wrong and will be punished.
First person first, second person next and third person last.
While expressing a positive Idea or praise, the sequence of the personal pronouns should be as follow:
You, he and I will get an award for the good work we have done.
Second person, third person and first person
When two singular nouns joined by and denote the same person or thing, the pronounce used for them must be singular in number. The definite article the is placed before the first noun.
The accounts officer and treasurer should be careful in his work of keeping accounts.
When two singular nouns are joined by ‘and’, and are preceded by each and every, the pronounce must be in singular number.
Every student and every teacher took his or her seat.
When a personal pronoun is connected by a conjunction with some other word in the objective case, it must be in the objective or accusative case.
These clothes are for you and me.
When a singular noun and a plural noun are combined by or, either …or, neither nor, the singular noun usually comes first in the sentence, and the pronounce must be in the plural number.
Either the manager or his subordinates failed in their duty in sending the official message.
The personal pronouns -,yours, are, hers, theirs and it’s- are written without the apostrophe(‘).
Your’s sincerely (wrong)
Yours sincerely (right)
Note: ‘It’s’ means ‘it is’ and not belonging to it.
It’s a mad dog which bites its tail.
When our personal pronoun is used as a complement to the verb to be, it (the pronoun) must be in the nominative case.
- It was he, who could solve the problem easily..
A pronounce should be used in the objective case in a sentence beginning with let.
- Let him go to his office immediately.
- Let her submit the records in time.
One can be used to talk about people in general. The pronoun that follows one should be one’s(not his/her).
- One should do his duty (wrong)
- One should do one’s duty (correct)
Note: But there is a controversy here. In American English one can be followed by his or her. Students taking TOEFL or GRE or GMAT or SAT should keep this in mind. However, usually one need not worry about this problem. If a sentence begins with one, be sure that you or they DOES NOT follow. Hence it is never correct to say:
- If one takes this exam without studying, you are likely to fail.
Additional example: One should never tell his secrets to a gossip if he wishes them to remain secret. (correct)
Relative pronoun must always be placed as near its antecedent as possible. Also, it must always agree with its antecedent in number, gender and person.
- This is the manager(antecedent) who(relative pronoun) abused the Clerk.
Generally, the relative pronoun in the objective case is omitted.
- The student (whom is omitted) you wanted to punish is absent today.
The pronoun who, whom and whose are generally used for persons.
- Who is used in the nominative case.
- Whom is used in the objective case.
- Whose is used in the possessive case.
- Sarita is the student who got an award.
- They are the thieves whom the police caught.
- This is the student whose certificates are lost.
When the relative pronoun is in different cases, one in the nominative and other in the objective, it must be nominated twice, once for each verb.
- The girl, who is my daughter and whom you met in the library yesterday, left for Mumbai this morning.
In the above example, the subject of the sentence ‘the girl’ is also the object of the sentence. Hence both ‘who’ and ‘whom’ are used.
Uses of which
‘Which’ is used in the following ways:
1.For infants, small animals and objects
- This is the baby which was lost in the theatre.
- This is the dog which my friend bought from the kennel’s club.
2. When selection is expressed
- Which of these television sets do you want to purchase?
3. To refer to a sentence
- He was said to be drunk, which was not true.
Uses of That;
‘That’ is used in the following cases
1.For persons, lifeless things and small animals in the singular or in the plural number.
- This is the girl that failed in the exam.
- This is the radio that I bought yesterday.
2. As a substitute for a singular noun already mentioned.
- The weather of Hyderabad is far better than Chennai (wrong).
- The weather of Hyderabad is far better than that of Chennai (Right).
3. After a noun phrase used as a direct object.
- I vividly remember the night that she came.
‘Either and neither’ are used in speaking of two persons or places or things etc.
Neither Mahesh nor Mohan is intelligent (negative meaning is employed).
Either Mahesh or Mohan is expected to get a prize (positive meaning is implied).
Uses of each other and one another.
1. Each Other is used for two persons or things or places etc.
- These two students love each other.
2. One another is used for more than two persons or things.
- Those four countries always disagree with one another.
Each can come in three different positions in a sentence.
1. Each of the students got a prize. (initial)
2. The students got a price each. (End)
3. The students were each given a prize. (middle)
ONE is used in the following ways:
1. For people in general.
- One must try to do one’s duty.
- One must not be proud of oneself.
2. In place of a noun previously mentioned
- Give me a banana which is a fresh one.
- Give me bananas which are fresh ones.
As regards anybody, everyone, everybody etc the pronounce of the masculine or feminine gender should be used according to the context.
- Everyone of the boys got his hall ticket.
Rewrite the following sentences after making the necessary corrections
- Between you and I, the secretary is not a gentleman.
- One should do your duty honestly and sincerely.
- Good students like you and he should study regularly.
- You, he and I are in the wrong.
- Only you and him can do this work fast.